The FDCPA outlines the laws under which debt collectors operate. Anyone who is using interstate commerce, such as the mail, to collect on a debt is considered a debt collector. Collection activities are limited by the FDCPA.
Real estate is a notoriously complex area of law. The Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act defines fair real estate practices and prohibits certain deceptive practices, including kickbacks for mortgage brokers.
Creditors have a variety of tools at their disposal when it comes to collecting debts. They can send notifications via the mail, or they can contact the consumer by phone. They can also litigate to collect on the debt.